In colorimetry, the Munsell color product is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity). It was actually produced by Professor Albert H. Munsell within the first decade in the 20th century and adopted with the USDA because the official color system for soil research inside the 1930s.
Several earlier color order systems had placed colors right into a three-dimensional color solid of a single form or any other, but Munsell was the first one to separate hue, value, and chroma into perceptually uniform and independent dimensions, and he was the first to systematically illustrate the colours in three-dimensional space. Munsell’s system, in particular the later renotations, is founded on rigorous measurements of human subjects’ visual responses to color, putting it with a firm experimental scientific basis. Because of this basis in human visual perception, Munsell’s system has outlasted its contemporary color models, even though it really has been superseded for some uses by models like CIELAB (L*a*b*) and CIECAM02, it is actually still in wide use today.
Munsell’s color sphere, 1900. Later, munsell color chart learned that if hue, value, and chroma were to be kept perceptually uniform, achievable surface colors could not forced right into a regular shape.
Three-dimensional representation of the 1943 Munsell renotations. Spot the irregularity from the shape when compared with Munsell’s earlier color sphere, at left.
The device contains three independent dimensions which is often represented cylindrically in three dimensions being an irregular color solid: hue, measured by degrees around horizontal circles; chroma, measured radially outward from your neutral (gray) vertical axis; and value, measured vertically from (black) to 10 (white). Munsell determined the spacing of colors along these dimensions by taking measurements of human visual responses. In each dimension, Munsell colors are as near to perceptually uniform because he might make them, making the resulting shape quite irregular. As Munsell explains:
Want to fit a chosen contour, for example the pyramid, cone, cylinder or cube, along with not enough proper tests, has led to many distorted statements of color relations, plus it becomes evident, when physical measurement of pigment values and chromas is studied, that no regular contour will serve.
-?Albert H. Munsell, “A Pigment Color System and Notation”
Each horizontal circle Munsell split up into five principal hues: Red, Yellow, Green, Blue, and Purple, in addition to 5 intermediate hues (e.g., YR) halfway between adjacent principal hues. All these 10 steps, with the named hue given number 5, is then broken into 10 sub-steps, to ensure that 100 hues are shown integer values. In practice, color charts conventionally specify 40 hues, in increments of 2.5, progressing in terms of example 10R to 2.5YR.
Two colors of equal value and chroma, on opposite sides of your hue circle, are complementary colors, and mix additively for the neutral gray of the identical value. The diagram below shows 40 evenly spaced Munsell hues, with complements vertically aligned.
Value, or lightness, varies vertically along the color solid, from black (value ) in the bottom, to white (value 10) towards the top.Neutral grays lie down the vertical axis between white and black.
Several color solids before Munsell’s plotted luminosity from black on the bottom to white on the top, having a gray gradient between them, nevertheless these systems neglected to keep perceptual lightness constant across horizontal slices. Instead, they plotted fully saturated yellow (light), and fully saturated blue and purple (dark) over the equator.
Chroma, measured radially from the middle of each slice, represents the “purity” of any color (associated with saturation), with lower chroma being less pure (more washed out, like in pastels). Be aware that there is absolutely no intrinsic upper limit to chroma. Different areas of colour space have different maximal chroma coordinates. For example light yellow colors have significantly more potential chroma than light purples, as a result of nature from the eye and the physics of color stimuli. This led to a wide array of possible chroma levels-around the high 30s for a few hue-value combinations (though it is not easy or impossible to make physical objects in colors of such high chromas, and they can not be reproduced on current computer displays). Vivid solid colors will be in the range of approximately 8.
Note that the Munsell Book of Color contains more color samples than this chart both for 5PB and 5Y (particularly bright yellows, as much as 5Y 8.5/14). However, they are not reproducible inside the sRGB color space, with a limited color gamut made to match those of televisions and computer displays. Note also that there 85dexupky no samples for values (pure black) and 10 (pure white), that are theoretical limits not reachable in pigment, and no printed examples of value 1..
One is fully specified by listing the 3 numbers for hue, value, and chroma in that order. For example, a purple of medium lightness and fairly saturated will be 5P 5/10 with 5P meaning the colour in the midst of the purple hue band, 5/ meaning medium value (lightness), along with a chroma of 10 (see swatch).
The idea of utilizing a three-dimensional color solid to represent all colors was created through the 18th and 19th centuries. A number of shapes for this kind of solid were proposed, including: a double triangular pyramid by Tobias Mayer in 1758, one particular triangular pyramid by Johann Heinrich Lambert in 1772, a sphere by Philipp Otto Runge in 1810, a hemisphere by Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1839, a cone by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1860, a tilted cube by William Benson in 1868, plus a slanted double cone by August Kirschmann in 1895. These systems became progressively modern-day, with Kirschmann’s even recognizing the visible difference in value between bright colors of several hues. But these remained either purely theoretical or encountered practical problems in accommodating all colors. Furthermore, none was according to any rigorous scientific measurement of human vision; before Munsell, the relationship between hue, value, and chroma had not been understood.
Albert Munsell, an artist and professor of art at the Massachusetts Normal Art School (now Massachusetts College of Art and Design, or MassArt), wanted to create a “rational method to describe color” that could use decimal notation instead of color names (that he felt were “foolish” and “misleading”), that he can use to teach his students about color. He first started work on the machine in 1898 and published it entirely form within a Color Notation in 1905.
The initial embodiment of your system (the 1905 Atlas) had some deficiencies like a physical representation from the theoretical system. These were improved significantly within the 1929 Munsell Book of Color and thru an extensive series of experiments completed by the Optical Society of America in the 1940s contributing to the notations (sample definitions) for the modern Munsell Book of Color. Though several replacements for the Munsell system happen to be invented, building on Munsell’s foundational ideas-like the Optical Society of America’s Uniform Color Scales, as well as the International Commission on Illumination’s CIELAB and CIECAM02 color models-the Munsell product is still traditionally used, by, amongst others, ANSI to define hair and skin colors for forensic pathology, the USGS for matching soil colors, in prosthodontics during your selection of shades for dental restorations, and breweries for matching beer colors.